What are goals?
Stakeholders have objectives. They want a planned or existing system to help them achieve these objectives. Consequently, a system has to possess certain characteristics and functionalities. The description of such a charateristic or functionality (also called feature) on the basis of stakeholder objectives is what we call a goal. Klaus Pohl summed it up briefly and concisely in his book Requirements Engineering – Grundlagen Prinzipien, Techniken:
A goal is the intentional description of a characteristic feature of a system to be developed, or of its accompanying development process.