The Kano Model describes the connection between customer satisfaction and the realization of customer requirements. Noriaki Kano, professor (emeritus) of Tokyo University of Science, developed a model for customer satisfacton in 1978, known today as the Kano Model. He determined 5 characteristics of customer requirements:
- Threshold attributes (Must-be qualities). These attributes are taken for granted when fulfilled but result in dissatisfaction when not fulfilled. Customers expect these attributes and view them as basic; it is unlikely that they are going to tell the company about them when asked about quality attributes.
- Performance attributes (One-dimensional qualities). These attributes result in satisfaction when fulfilled and dissatisfaction when not fulfilled. These are attributes that are spoken and the ones in which companies compete. If they are excelled customer satisfaction increases accordingly.
- Excitement attributes (Attractive qualities). These attributes provide satisfaction when achieved but do not cause dissatisfaction when not fulfilled. They are not normally expected and thus often unspoken.
- Indifferent qualities. These aspects are neither good or bad and have no effect, positive or negative, on customer satisfaction.
- Reverse qualities. If these aspects exist they lead to dissatisfaction; if they do not exist they do not lead to satisfaction.
It is not possible to deduce an overall satisfaction level from the Kano Model.